The Patterns of a Conservation Economy
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Subsistence Rights
Examples of this pattern in action:

Makah Whale Hunt
The Makah harvest of gray whales for the first time in several years is culturally significant because it marks a return to ways of old. Traditionally, the Makah have taken gray whales to provide sustenance and to culturally celebrate the whale via ceremonies and rituals.

Fighting For Subsistence Rights In Southeast Alaska
KETCHIKAN, AK - So many of the controversies in the coastal temperate rain forest are portrayed as battles between preservation and consumption that it's refreshing to run across a conflict which pits one kind of livelihood against another. On the Cleveland Peninsula, just across Behm Canal from Ketchikan, an unusual coalition of subsistence hunters, fishers and recreationists is fighting to protect 200,000 acres of wildlands from clearcuts and roadbuilding. Their agenda isn't to protect the cuddly animals and the pretty landscape, it's to preserve an opportunity to forage for the venison, salmon and crab that comprise an substantial part of their diet…

Organizations whose work incorporate this pattern:


Berkes, Fikret. Sacred Ecology: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Resource Management. Taylor & Francis. Philadelphia, PA. 1999.

Morgan, Nancy, et al. More Than the Sum of Our Parks: People, Places and a Protected Areas System for British Columbia. Ecotrust Canada and Ecotrust. Vancouver, BC. 1997.

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Pattern Index

A Conservation Economy

Social Capital

Fundamental Needs

Subsistence Rights

Shelter For All


Access To Knowledge


Social Equity


Cultural Diversity

Cultural Preservation

Sense Of Place

Beauty And Play

Just Transitions

Civic Society

Natural Capital

Ecological Land-Use

Connected Wildlands

Core Reserves

Wildlife Corridors

Buffer Zones

Productive Rural Areas

Sustainable Agriculture

Sustainable Forestry

Sustainable Fisheries


Compact Towns And Cities

Human-Scale Neighborhoods

Green Building

Transit Access

Ecological Infrastructure

Urban Growth Boundaries

Ecosystem Services

Watershed Services

Soil Services

Climate Services


Economic Capital

Household Economies

Green Business

Long-Term Profitability

Community Benefit

Green Procurement

Renewable Energy

Sustainable Materials Cycles

Resource Efficiency

Waste As Resource

Product As Service

Local Economies

Value-Added Production

Rural-Urban Linkages

Local Assets

Bioregional Economies

Fair Trade

True Cost Pricing

Product Labeling