The Patterns of a Conservation Economy
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Natural Capital
Examples of this pattern in action:

Wetland Mitigation Bank - Willapa
Public entities — ports, counties, cities and states — help to consolidate wetland habitat in exchange for the wetlands impacted by infrastructure and development. What was once just swampland to be drained and filled, is now recognized as vital habitat to be protect and restore. Wetlands serve as habitat for waterfowl, juvenile fish and other creatures as well as working as natural filters for water. In Washington state, wetland banks have been slow to develop. In the past state regulators have instead emphasized mitigating on site for each impact. Excerpt taken from A Wetland to Bank On by Ed Hunt

Organizations whose work incorporate this pattern:

Oregon Climate Trust

Oregon Water Trust

Skytrust: The Common Assets Project


Daily, Gretchen C., ed. Nature's Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Island Press. Washington, DC. 1997.

Jansson, AnnMari, et al. Investing in Natural Capital: The Ecological Economics Approach to Sustainability. Island Press. Washington, DC. 1994.

van Dieren, Wouter. Taking Nature Into Account: A Report to the Club of Rome. Springer-Verlag. New York, NY. 1995.

Wackernagel, Mathis and William Rees. Our Ecological Footrpint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth. New Society Publishers. Gabriola, BC. 1996.

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Pattern Index

A Conservation Economy

Social Capital

Fundamental Needs

Subsistence Rights

Shelter For All


Access To Knowledge


Social Equity


Cultural Diversity

Cultural Preservation

Sense Of Place

Beauty And Play

Just Transitions

Civic Society

Natural Capital

Ecological Land-Use

Connected Wildlands

Core Reserves

Wildlife Corridors

Buffer Zones

Productive Rural Areas

Sustainable Agriculture

Sustainable Forestry

Sustainable Fisheries


Compact Towns And Cities

Human-Scale Neighborhoods

Green Building

Transit Access

Ecological Infrastructure

Urban Growth Boundaries

Ecosystem Services

Watershed Services

Soil Services

Climate Services


Economic Capital

Household Economies

Green Business

Long-Term Profitability

Community Benefit

Green Procurement

Renewable Energy

Sustainable Materials Cycles

Resource Efficiency

Waste As Resource

Product As Service

Local Economies

Value-Added Production

Rural-Urban Linkages

Local Assets

Bioregional Economies

Fair Trade

True Cost Pricing

Product Labeling