The Patterns of a Conservation Economy
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Ritual salmon bake provided for ecotourists on the B.C. coast.
Image by Frank Brown.


The negative consequences of conventional tourism to local communities are well known, including excessive development, degradation of ecosystems, cultural homogenization, and the concentration of economic benefits in outside hands. On the other hand, more benign forms of tourism potentially represent an alternative to extractive, boom-and-bust economies.

Tourism is the world's number one employer, accounting for 10 percent of jobs globally. There is an enormous opportunity to convert much of this activity to Ecotourism, which emphasizes the interpretation of local ecosystems and culture by trained guides; minimal-impact visitation; commitment to local conservation issues; and direct benefits to local people. Ecotourism also promotes Green Building techniques for facilities and mitigation of travel impacts. For instance, travel agencies are beginning to offer an option for travelers to purchase sufficient carbon credits to offset emissions from their flight or car rental.

Ecotourism typically takes advantage of proximity to areas of special ecological or cultural significance. Such Core Reserves, archaeological zones, or historic sites are inherently fragile. The scale and kind of visits to these areas must not overwhelm their limited capacities to host people. Ecotourism operations that are owned and run by local people tend to offer the most authentic cultural immersion and provide the most significant local benefits. They permit communities to base part of their on their ecological and cultural assets without allowing them to be damaged in the process.

Heiltsuk First Nation entrepreneurs Frank and Kathy Brown created SeeQuest Adventures in their community of Bella Bella. Now a stop on a new B.C. Ferries route along the mid-coast of British Columbia, the SeeQuest facility at McLoughlin Bay is a prime example of a locally owned and operated, culturally-based ecotourism enterprise. Many other First Nations ecotourism operations are springing up on the British Columbia coast.

The Ecotourism Society has developed a process for initiating "green evaluations" in the field of tour operations. Such certification of ecotourism operators can help consumers make more informed decisions, but is still in its early stages.

Seek opportunities for ecotourism operations, but only if they can be owned and managed by local people, and adverse impacts to sensitive ecological and historical areas can be avoided.

Examples of this pattern in action:

Heiltsuk First Nation entrepreneurs Frank and Kathy Brown created SeeQuest Adventures in their community of Bella Bella. Now a stop on a new B.C. Ferries route along the mid-coast of B.C., the SeeQuest facility at McLoughlin Bay is a prime example of a locally owned and operated culturally-based ecotourism enterprise…

Ecotours of Oregon
In late 1991, the Davies investigated local needs and entrepreneurial opportunities, matching their findings to their own environmental consciousness and lifestyle with a venture which filled a void in the tourism industry locally — forming EcoTours of Oregon…

Alaska towns fight cruise-ship tourism
TENAKEE SPRINGS, ALASKA - When a cruise ship full of tourists dropped anchor nearby early one summer morning, the hundred or so inhabitants of this southeast Alaskan town were caught off guard. They had known the ship intended to bring its 120 passengers to their town, they had registered their objections, but they weren't expecting their unwanted guests until afternoon…

Vargas Island kayaking/hiking adventures
Wilderness Kayaking and Nature Tours

Organizations whose work incorporate this pattern:

Conservation International's Ecotravel Center

The Ecotourism Society


Honey, Martha. Ecotourism and Sustainable Development: Who Owns Paradise?. Island Press. Washington, DC. 1999.

McClaren, Deborah. Rethinking Tourism: The Paving of Paradise and What You Can Do About It. Kumarian Press. West Hartford, CT. .

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Pattern Index

A Conservation Economy

Social Capital

Fundamental Needs

Subsistence Rights

Shelter For All


Access To Knowledge


Social Equity


Cultural Diversity

Cultural Preservation

Sense Of Place

Beauty And Play

Just Transitions

Civic Society

Natural Capital

Ecological Land-Use

Connected Wildlands

Core Reserves

Wildlife Corridors

Buffer Zones

Productive Rural Areas

Sustainable Agriculture

Sustainable Forestry

Sustainable Fisheries


Compact Towns And Cities

Human-Scale Neighborhoods

Green Building

Transit Access

Ecological Infrastructure

Urban Growth Boundaries

Ecosystem Services

Watershed Services

Soil Services

Climate Services


Economic Capital

Household Economies

Green Business

Long-Term Profitability

Community Benefit

Green Procurement

Renewable Energy

Sustainable Materials Cycles

Resource Efficiency

Waste As Resource

Product As Service

Local Economies

Value-Added Production

Rural-Urban Linkages

Local Assets

Bioregional Economies

Fair Trade

True Cost Pricing

Product Labeling